When working with mutations its important to understand just some of the basics and follow good advice from a knowledgeable individual until you have learned how the 3 basic modes of inheritance works.

Birds inherit their mutation color one of 3 ways. We as bird breeders don't control how a bird inherits its color, but we can develop the mutation and control the breeding. Nature is the one that delivers us the mutation with its form of inheritance, through a trait that is either dominant, sex-linked, or recessive. I'll explain all three briefly.

A DOMINANT trait or mutation is visual to the eye, meaning you can see it if it is present. A bird either has this dominant trait (such as Violet or Cobalt in the Indian Ringnecks) or it doesn't. There are no carriers or "splits" for a dominant trait. If you breed a dominant mutation with a bird that doesn't have the same dominant trait, 50% of their offspring will receive this dominant gene and 50% will be normal.

Example pairing

Violet x Blue = 25% Violet cocks, 25% Violet hens, 25% Blue cocks, 25% Blue hens

A RECESSIVE trait or mutation can be visual to the eye, but it can also be carried or a bird can be "split" for a recessive trait (such as blue). In a recessive mutation, both cocks and hens can be normal looking, but split or carriers for the recessive gene.

Blue x normal (green) = 100% Green split blue (this is commonly written "green/blue")

Split blue x split blue = 25% blue, 50% green split blue, 25% normal green

Split blue x blue = 25% blue cocks, 25% blue hens, 25% split blue cocks, 25% split blue hens

Blue x blue = 100% blue

A SEX-LINKED trait or mutation can also be visual to the eye (such as lutino), but only cock birds can be splits or carriers for a sex-linked trait. Hens are either visual for a sex-linked mutation or normal. A hen can be visual for a sex-linked mutation such as lutino, but she can not be split for lutino

Green split lutino cock x lutino hen = 25% lutino cocks, 25% green split lutino cocks, 25% lutino hens, 25% normal green hens.

Lutino cock x normal green hen = 50% green split lutino cocks, 50% lutino hens

Lutino cock x lutino hen = 100% lutinos

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